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王海龙:美国UCR大学访学心得

 

 


 

时间:2015-10-30 10:43:48  来源:  作者:  浏览次数:  
 

王海龙青海师范大学音乐系教师,2012年获得西部地区人才培养特别项目的留学资助,录取文号为留金法[2012]5030号,学号为201208635044。于20141013日至20151013日在美国加州大学河滨分校University of California Riverside访问学习为期一年。

UCR访问学习期间体会多多。看到了很多先进的理念、先进的条件以及以人为本落在实处,感到能在美国大学读书是一种享受。同时看到需要学的地方也很多很多。在这一年中,在导师的耐心、精心指导下,顺利完成了自己的学习计划和研究任务,旁听了许多不同专业的集体公修课还参与一些有关课题的讨论活动,对美国的大学教育模式也产生了浓厚的兴趣并受益匪浅。同时撰写了一篇专业性论文。简单介绍如下:Introduction:

Why is a regional folk music has its special music form.The answer lies in the musicology theory. In order to prove the accuracy of the conclusion, we shall make a sample investigation and research on a region’s folk music from a new angle of view and with a new study method. Then we shall compare the results with those from musicology theory to illustrate the typicality of the regional folk music form. The task is to record Salar folk music melody waveform through spectrum technology and then to give a typical probability statistical classification by a mathematical statistical method.

Mathematician Leibniz (Leibniz 1646-1716) said, “Music is a kind of hidden arithmetic which deals with figures through the subconscious mind.” Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg(1874-1951) put forward his twelve-tone technique (an influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all twelve notes in the chromatic scale), which is a complete mathematical logic. Modern composer Stravinsky (1882-1971) said, “Music is closer to mathematics than to literature. Music is more like mathematical thoughts and relationship.” He purposely integrates the mathematical thinking into his music works.

So I often said with interest, “Music is the flowing mathematics and mathematics is the frozen music.” In fact, it is found that the human’s study on the relationship between mathematics and music can be traced back to the centuries before Christ. The famous Pythagorean School (the 5-6 century BC) believes that mathematical rules can be followed underneath music and they try to pursue music tonality, which is the earliest study in history. China’s ancient sanfen sunyi method is the method which studies music tonality through mathematical operation. The commonly-used music notation is also the most prominent aspect where mathematics is used in music. With deeper understanding of the relationship between mathematics and music, mathematical calculation replacing music composition has become a way of creation of modern composers. Composing music is to make the music creation formula, compiling the music materials such as interval, rhythm and timbre into numerical code, and then to issue instructions in accordance with the requirements, making the choice by the function of the calculator, compiling the results into music and playing it out. In addition to the obvious connection of mathematics with music tonality and notation, music is also connected with index, curves, periodic function and computer science, etc. Now mathematics is needed in music theory, composition, synthesis and electronic music making, etc.    

In recent years, along with the rapid development of the music information retrieval field, the information base’s classification and construction has become an inevitable trend, which inspired the author of the thesis. From a new perspective and by a new method, we will give a sample survey to a region’s folk music, comparing the conclusions with the ones obtained through music theory, in order to illustrate the typicality of the regional folk music form. Our task is to record Salar folk music melody waveform through spectrum technology and after digital analysis to give a typical probability statistical classification by a mathematical statistical method. By analyzing the waveform data of music melody and rhythm, we can create a data model and a music information database.

Salar folk songs need one or more classifications according to their characteristics, such as style, melody and rhythm. An effective formula is established with music modes and design. This formula algorithm can be used in the automatic classification of music melody. In the article we are interested in this formula’s actual performance, which is demonstrated by graphics. The classification of music can be realized from another perspective.

The way of thinking

1. We put every sound signal of music twelve-tone equal temperament into the computer via electric information technology, make a chart analysis of each sound audio frequency, and then obtain a specific data parameter. A statistical theoretical formula is set up.

2. The typical Salar folk music is collected through MIDI by electric information technology. Through the figures concluded from music waveform (the way of thinking 1) we can find out in Salar folk music frequently appearing sound level combination. This is the most representative characteristic in this music. Then we will compare the result with that of music theory.

3. Then we will match each note with the note duration by mathematical character, using the method of mathematical statistics method to analyze the probability of note combination, looking for a typical music mode.

4. Using the above technology we will make a data analysis of the folk music in the surrounding areas of Salar nationality, in order to expand the research field to all ethnic groups of the northwest and southwest of China, obtaining the data and making comparison and analysis. We hope to popularize this kind of study method.

    UCR大学的图书馆有可供研究的全部数据库,这为我的研究提供了一个非常良好的平台,同时馆内的设施条件十分便利、十分人性,因而我更喜欢在图书馆里学习。

在研究之余,我对中美两国大学教育通过与一些学生及老师交谈中简单的了解一些差异性。如:

1、注重个人兴趣的发展。

2、在学分制方面学生的选择性较大。

3、系里一般都有研究方面(团队),成员每周来在一起参加讨论,这种模式是值得我学习的地方,并且让学生分成多个小组规定每周集体参加讨论。

4、经常可以看到各系组织学生四处参观,开阔视野增长见识。

在美国的学习之余我最关注的就是美国教师职称评定机制。在美国三千多所正规大学中,并没有一套通用的职称评审规则。不过,作为教学质量与科研水平的重要保障,知名大学的职称评定与管理程序严谨、奖惩有度,始终保持了终身制教职的高门槛和高水准。美国大学评职称主要为助理教授、副教授和教授三个终身制序列的教职,讲师以及形形色色的客座、辅助教授不在此列。大学教师职位稳、收入高、受人尊敬,是令人向往的铁饭碗,但其门槛之高,并非一般人所能企及。

助理教授的入门基准线是拥有博士学位,而其对专业水平的高标准要求及不升即离的残酷竞争,使不少博士望而生畏。近一二十年,受经费开支等因素制约,美国大学终身教职呈减少趋势,门槛也显得更高了。据美国大学教授协会的数据,现在的美国大学中68%的教师是辅助教授”(非助理教授)。助理教授、副教授、教授的收入比约为5810,更大的区别在于,助理教授只是刚刚跨入终身制体系,还没有真正捧上铁饭碗。如果一名助理教授任职56年后评不上副教授,就只有另谋出路。只要不违反法律和职业操守,副教授、教授可任职终身,没有退休年龄限制。一般来说,美国大学的助理教授在任职五六年后可参评副教授,副教授任职三四年后可参评教授。美国大学评职称虽无指标限制,但其严格的程序确保了只有在教学、科研和服务性工作等各领域表现优良者才能通过评审。没有全优的表现,助理教授只能接受不升即离命运,副教授也可能一辈子不能转正。在美国大学评职称并没有名额限制。据了解,一些美国大学近年来还开始实行终身后评审,对终身制教授每五年重新审核一次,评审程序与初评职称时基本一致。如果第一次终身后评审未能通过,校方将对该教授提出警告。如果五年后第二次终身后评审仍未通过,校方有权解雇该教授。这意味着,大学教授这个工作,只有好好端着才是铁饭碗

在对教师的教学能力以及评定职称方面从科研与教学两个方面,根据教师能力的侧重在科研与教学以三七比例量化。譬如说某老师擅长教学那么在职称评定时就侧重教学,教学70%+科研30%进行量化打分。反之,某老师擅长科研那么在职称评定时就侧重科研,科研70%+教学30%进行量化打分,平衡教师评定的量化标准。很希望我们学校也能在教师职称评定量化标准上有在这样的改革。

结语:

在美国这一年的学习生活,我是大开眼界增长见识。在科研方面也学到了新的思路,科研能力也得到很大提高,对教师这项职业有更深刻的理解。为此我要特别的感谢国家以及国家留学基金委,感谢青海省教育厅,感谢青海师范大学,也感谢校领导及同事们的支持。

 

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